New Trends in Dyslipidemia Treatment

Link to article at PubMed

Circ J. 2020 Nov 12. doi: 10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1037. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Statin therapy has dramatically improved CV outcomes and is the backbone of current lipid-lowering therapy, but despite well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels through statin administration, up to 40% patients still experience CV disease. New therapeutic agents to tackle such residual cholesterol risk by lowering not only LDL-C but triglycerides (TG), TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), or lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are being introduced. Ezetimibe, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies, PCSK9 small interference RNA (siRNA), and bempedoic acid added to statin therapy have shown additional improvement to CV outcomes. Recent trials administering eicosapentaenoic acid to patients with high TG despite statin therapy have also demonstrated significant CV benefit. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapies with hepatocyte-specific targeting modifications are now being newly introduced with promising lipid-lowering effects. ASOs targeting TG/TRL, such as angiopoietin-like 3 or 4 (ANGPTL3 or ANGPTL4), apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3), or Lp(a) have effectively lowered the corresponding lipid profiles without requiring high or frequent doses. Clinical outcomes from these novel therapeutics are yet to be proven. Here, we review current and emerging therapeutics targeting LDL-C, TG, TRL, and Lp(a) to reduce the residual CV risk.

PMID:33177309 | DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-20-1037

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