Am J Med. 2020 Nov 9:S0002-9343(20)30942-6. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.11.001. Online ahead of print.
Concurrent pleural and pericardial effusions are not an unusual finding, but their differential diagnosis remains uncertain. Medline-based review identified an extensive list of infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, iatrogenic, and myriad other etiologies. A single retrospective study had addressed this presentation. Several principles of a diagnostic workup are suggested, acknowledging that a significant minority of patients may not require a comprehensive workup and remain 'idiopathic'.