Clin Nutr. 2020 Oct 23:S0261-5614(20)30578-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.035. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: of the study: Pneumonia is the most common medical illness causing hospital admissions and the most common cause of sepsis and septic shock. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem that affects several populations worldwide. Unfortunately, data regarding the relationship between vitamin D concentrations and outcomes of pneumonia in adult patients are sparse. Thus, we aimed to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pneumonia patients and to correlate its levels with patients' outcomes.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of 100 patients with pneumonia admitted to Al-Azhar University hospital at New Damietta City. Data from history, Physical examination and biochemical analyses were collected. Grouping was based on vitamin D status. A comparison was made between groups regarding pneumonia severity and outcome. Also, correlation between Vit D level and outcome was studied.
RESULTS: Our study showed that 63% of patients had vitamin D level below 12 ng/mL, and patients with vitamin D level below 20 was 84%. We found an association between vitamin D deficiency and pneumonia severity. The severity of pneumonia was significantly higher among the deficient group. We also found that there was statistically significant increase of complications in deficient group. The patients improved without complications had the highest levels of vitamin D, while ARDS and septicemia complicated patients had the lowest levels of vitamin D. In addition, there was a difference between the two groups regarding to mortality. The mortality rate was higher in the deficient group as compared to non-deficient group.
CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem among critically ill patients. Its status affects pneumonia severity and outcome.