Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2020 Dec;49(4):695-723. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2020.07.004. Epub 2020 Oct 14.
Although type 1 diabetes mellitus and, to a lesser extent, type 2 diabetes mellitus, are the prevailing forms of diabetes in youth, atypical forms of diabetes are not uncommon and may require etiology-specific therapies. By some estimates, up to 6.5% of children with diabetes have monogenic forms. Mitochondrial diabetes and cystic fibrosis related diabetes are less common but often noted in the underlying disease. Atypical diabetes should be considered in patients with a known disorder associated with diabetes, aged less than 25 years with nonautoimmune diabetes and without typical characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or with comorbidities associated with atypical diabetes.