J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 Nov;17(11S):S487-S496. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2020.09.003.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are common, with an overall lifetime risk over >50%. UTIs are considered recurrent when they follow complete clinical resolution of a previous UTI and are usually defined as at least three episodes of infection within the preceding 12 months. An uncomplicated UTI is classified as a UTI without structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and without relevant comorbidities. Complicated UTIs are those occurring in patients with underlying structural or medical problems. In women with recurrent uncomplicated UTIs, cystoscopy and imaging are not routinely used. In women suspected of having a recurrent complicated UTI, cystoscopy and imaging should be considered. CT urography or MR urography are usually appropriate for the evaluation of recurrent complicated lower urinary tract infections or for women who are nonresponders to conventional therapy, develop frequent reinfections or relapses, or have known underlying risk factors. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.