J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 Nov;17(11S):S415-S428. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2020.09.010.
Renal masses are increasingly detected in asymptomatic individuals as incidental findings. CT and MRI with intravenous contrast and a dedicated multiphase protocol are the mainstays of evaluation for indeterminate renal masses. A single-phase postcontrast dual-energy CT can be useful when a dedicated multiphase renal protocol CT is not available. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound with microbubble agents is a useful alternative for characterizing renal masses, especially for patients in whom iodinated CT contrast or gadolinium-based MRI contrast is contraindicated. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.