Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2020 Dec;34(4):751-771. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2020.08.004.
Serious infections owing to vancomycin-resistant enterococci have historically proven to be difficult clinical cases, requiring combination therapy and management of treatment-related toxicity. Despite the introduction of new antibiotics with activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci to the therapeutic armamentarium, significant challenges remain. An understanding of the factors driving the emergence of resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococci, the dynamics of gastrointestinal colonization and microbiota-mediated colonization resistance, and the mechanisms of resistance to the currently available therapeutics will permit clinicians to be better prepared to tackle these challenging hospital-associated pathogens.