J Clin Gastroenterol. 2021 Feb 1;55(2):159-168. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001436.
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nonsurgical secondary prophylaxis interventions for esophageal varices (EV) rebleeding in cirrhotic patients using network meta-analysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Secondary prophylaxis of EV rebleeding in cirrhosis is searched on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases. The quality of literatures was extracted by 2 independent investigators according to the requirements of Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, Version 5.0.0. Meta-analysis was performed on Review Manager 5.3 software for the incidence of cirrhosis EV rebleeding, rebleeding-related mortality, and overall mortality; and STATA 15.1 software was used for network meta-analysis.
RESULTS: In all, 57 randomized controlled trials were reviewed. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL)+argon plasma coagulation has not been recommended by guidelines, and it is rarely used; the number of existing studies and the sample size are small. Considering poor stability of the combined results, these studies were excluded; 55 literatures were included. In terms of reducing the incidence of rebleeding, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) (94.3%) was superior to EBL+endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) (84.4%), EIS+β-blockers (77.9%), EBL (59.8%), EBL+β-blockers+isosorbide-5-mononitrate (52.7%), EBL+β-blockers (51.4%), EIS (34.2%), β-blockers+isosorbide-5-mononitrate (23.7%), β-blockers (20.8%), and placebo (0.8%). In reducing rebleeding-related mortality, TIPS SUCRA (87.2%) was more efficacious than EBL+EIS (83.5%), EIS (47.9%), EBL+β-blockers (47.4%), β-blockers (41.8%), EBL (34.5%), and placebo (7.6%). In reducing overall mortality, TIPS SUCRA (81.1%) was superior to EBL+EIS (68.9%), EIS+β-blockers (59.2%), EBL+β-blockers (55.4%), EIS (48.8%), EBL (48.7%), β-blockers (34.2%), placebo (3.6%).
CONCLUSIONS: TIPS was more effective in reducing the incidence of cirrhosis EV rebleeding, rebleeding-related mortality, and overall mortality in cirrhosis. Combined with the above results, TIPS is more likely to be recommended as a secondary prophylaxis intervention for EV in cirrhosis.