Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med. 2020 Oct 15;14:1179548420966246. doi: 10.1177/1179548420966246. eCollection 2020.
BACKGROUND: Pressures measured during mechanical ventilation provide important information about the respiratory system mechanics and can help predict outcomes.
METHODS: The electronic medical records of patients hospitalized between 2010 and 2016 with sepsis who required mechanical ventilation were reviewed to collect demographic information, clinical information, management requirements, and outcomes, such as mortality, ICU length of stay, and hospital length of stay. Mechanical ventilation pressures were recorded on the second full day of hospitalization.
RESULTS: This study included 312 adult patients. The mean age is 59.1 ± 16.3 years; 57.4% were men. The mean BMI was 29.3 ± 10.7. Some patients had pulmonary infections (46.2%), and some patients had extrapulmonary infections (34.9%). The overall mortality was 42.6%. In a multi-variable model that included age, gender, number of comorbidities, APACHE 2 score, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, peak pressure, plateau pressure, driving pressure, and PEEP all predicted mortality when entered into the model separately. There was an increase in peak pressure, plateau pressure, and driving pressure across BMI categories ranging from underweight to obese.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that ventilator pressure measurements made early during the management of patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation provide prognostic information regarding outcomes, including mortality. Patients with high mechanical ventilator pressures during the early course of their acute respiratory failure require more attention to identify reversible disease processes when possible. In addition, increased BMIs are associated with increased ventilator pressures, and this increases the complexity of the clinical evaluation in the management of obese patients.