Pharmacotherapy. 2020 Sep;40(9):889-901. doi: 10.1002/phar.2446. Epub 2020 Aug 18.
BACKGROUND: Serious bloodstream infections (BSIs) are often caused by Gram-negative (GN) bacteria in hospitalized patients. Treatment of these infections has been further complicated by the continued rise and spread of drug-resistant pathogens, including carbapenem resistant (CR) strains of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
METHODS: This retrospective cohort analysis used real-world data from a large United States hospital-based database to examine the association between key clinical outcomes and different lengths of time to appropriate treatment between October 2010 and September 2015.
RESULTS: Of 40,549 patients with GN-BSIs who were identified, 1117 (2.8%) had a CR GN-BSI. Overall, outcomes of hospitalized adult patients with GN-BSIs incrementally worsened the longer appropriate therapy was delayed. Patients with CR GN-BSIs had a median infection-associated length of stay (LOS) of 8, 9, 10, and 13 days, whereas patients with CS GN-BSIs had a median infection-associated LOS of 6, 7, 8, and 11 days for patients with days to appropriate therapy of 0, 1-2, 3-4, and ≥ 5 days, respectively. Among patients with CR GN-BSIs, the percentage of patients discharged home was 38%, 33%, 35%, and 31%, whereas in patients with CS GN-BSIs, the percentage of patients discharged home was 58%, 53%, 48%, and 43% for patients with days to appropriate therapy of 0, 1-2, 3-4, and ≥ 5 days, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The findings from this study highlight the clear need to deliver appropriate therapy more expeditiously in patients with CS and CR GN-BSIs.