Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2020 Dec;34(6):1009-1026. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2020.08.001. Epub 2020 Sep 28.
Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis is the most common systemic amyloidosis. The pathogenetic mechanism is deposition of fibrils of misfolded immunoglobulin free light chains, more often lambda, typically produced by clonal plasma cells. Distinct Ig light chain variable region genotypes underlie most light chain amyloidosis and dictate tissue tropism. Light chain amyloidosis fibrils cause distortion of the histologic architecture and direct cytotoxicity, leading to rapidly progressive organ dysfunction and eventually patient demise. A high index of clinical suspicion with rapid tissue diagnosis and commencement of combinatorial, highly effective cytoreductive therapy is crucial to avoid irreversible organ damage and early mortality.