Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2020 Dec;34(6):1099-1113. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2020.08.004. Epub 2020 Sep 30.
Clinical features of soft tissue amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis include macroglossia, arthropathy, muscle pseudohypertrophy, skin plaques, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Vascular manifestations of AL amyloid include periorbital ecchymosis, jaw or limb claudication, and even myocardial infarction caused by occlusion of small vessel coronary arteries. Some of these features, such as macroglossia, periorbital ecchymosis, and the so-called shoulder-pad sign, are pathognomonic for AL amyloidosis. These findings may be the initial presenting features of the disease, and the recognition of these red flag symptoms is very important for the diagnosis and early intervention on the underlying plasma cell disease.