Circ Heart Fail. 2020 Oct 19:CIRCHEARTFAILURE120007180. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.007180. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if β-blockers reduce mortality/morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF) and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), a population underrepresented in HF trials.
METHODS: Observational cohort of HF patients with advanced CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2) from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry between 2001 and 2016. We first explored associations between β-blocker use, 5-year death, and the composite of cardiovascular death/HF hospitalization among 3775 patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and advanced CKD. We compared observed hazards with those from a control cohort of 15 346 patients with HFrEF and moderate CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60-30 mL/min per 1.73 m2), for whom β-blocker trials demonstrate benefit. Second, we explored outcomes associated to β-blocker among advanced CKD participants with preserved (HFpEF; N=2009) and midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF; N=1514).
RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 1.3 years, 2012 patients had a subsequent HF hospitalization, and 2849 died in the HFrEF cohort, of which 2016 died due to cardiovascular causes. Among patients with HFrEF, β-blocker use was associated with lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75-0.96]) and cardiovascular mortality/HF hospitalization (0.87 [0.77-0.98]) compared with nonuse. The magnitude of the associations was similar to that observed for HFrEF patients with moderate CKD. Conversely, no significant association was observed for β-blocker users in advanced CKD with HFpEF (death: 0.88 [0.77-1.02], cardiovascular mortality/HF hospitalization: 1.05 [0.90-1.23]) or HFmrEF (death: 0.95 [0.79-1.14], cardiovascular mortality/HF hospitalization: 1.09 [0.90-1.31]).
CONCLUSIONS: In HFrEF patients with advanced CKD, the use of β-blockers was associated with lower morbidity and mortality. Although inconclusive due to limited power, these benefits were not observed in similar patients with HFpEF or HFmrEF.