Neurol Sci. 2020 Oct 14. doi: 10.1007/s10072-020-04823-6. Online ahead of print.
First in 2002, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), second in 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and now the third in the December 2019, emergence of tremendously pathogenic and large-scale epidemic novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has brought the worst conditions into the human inhabitants of the twenty-first century. The SARS-CoV-2 uses the resembling receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly feasts through the respiratory tract. The ACE2 receptor appearances have been also detected upon glial cells and neurons, which makes them a potential target of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). Consequently, cells expressing ACE2, apart from lung and cardiovascular tissue, neurons and glial cells may act as targets and are thus vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 systemic infection as well as its central nervous system (CNS) comorbidities. Investigation of the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 is a step towards better understanding the SARS-CoV-2 infections, inhibiting the additional spread and treating patients affected by this pandemic. In this concern, more clinical examinations for CNS involvement of SARS-CoV-2 are warranted. In this article, we have reviewed the neurological characteristic features of COVID-19 patients, latent neurotropic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 involvement in the comorbidity associated with CNS disorders, and neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19. Therefore, in the perspective of COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians and healthcare workers should be aware of a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19 along with their signs and symptoms for initial diagnosis and isolation of the patients.
PMID:33052573 | DOI:10.1007/s10072-020-04823-6