Am J Emerg Med. 2020 Sep 2:S0735-6757(20)30783-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2020.08.089. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: we aimed to explore the relationship of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the severity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, MedRxiv Database. We compared the laboratory indicators of renal impairment and incidences of AKI in the severe versus non-severe cases, and survival versus non-survival cases, respectively.
RESULTS: In 41 studies with 10,335 COVID-19 patients, the serum creatinine (sCr) in severe cases was much higher than that in non-severe cases (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.29-0.39), with a similar trend for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (SMD = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.51-0.81), hematuria (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.15-2.19), and proteinuria (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.58-5.38). The estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased significantly in severe cases compared with non-severe cases (SMD = -0.45, 95% CI: -0.67- -0.23). Moreover, the pooled OR of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and AKI prevalence for severe vs. non-severe cases was 12.99 (95%CI: 4.03-41.89) and 13.16 (95%CI: 10.16-17.05), respectively. Additionally, 11 studies with 3759 COVID-19 patients were included for analysis of disease mortality. The results showed the levels of sCr and BUN in non-survival cases remarkably elevated compared with survival patients, respectively (SMD = 0.97, SMD = 1.49). The pooled OR of CRRT and AKI prevalence for non-survival vs. survival cases was 31.51 (95%CI: 6.55-151.59) and 77.48 (95%CI: 24.52-244.85), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: AKI is closely related with severity and mortality of COVID-19, which gives awareness for doctors to pay more attention for risk screening, early identification and timely treatment of AKI.