Int J Clin Pharm. 2020 Oct 12. doi: 10.1007/s11096-020-01166-2. Online ahead of print.
Background Little is known with regards to the prognostic factors for patients with suspected or diagnosed Heparin-Induced Thromobocytopenia (HIT). The role of patient and therapy characteristics may play a role in predicting the outcome. Aim of the review To investigate the role of patient and therapy characteristics as potential prognostic factors for HIT-related complications (haemorrhagic and thromboembolic events), and mortality. Method The present systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. In September 2020, the main online databases were accessed: Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar. All the clinical trials concerning the management of patients with suspected or confirmed HIT were eligible. Studies evaluating the use of oral anticoagulants (e.g. vitamin K antagonists, Apixaban) were not considered, along with those comparing the use of heparin. For pairwise correlation, the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) was used. The final effect was evaluated according to the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.Results Data from 33 clinical studies (4338 patients) were retrieved. The overall mean age was 62.3 ± 6.6 years old. Patients with HIT-related thromboembolism at the moment of diagnosis were associated with greater rate of haemorrhages (P > 0.0001), thromboembolism (P > 0.0001) and mortality (P = 0.001). Patients with more comorbidities at diagnosis were associated with a greater risk of haemorrhages (P = 0.07), thromboembolism (P = 0.002) and mortality (P = 0.002). Patients with longer duration of the therapy were associated with lower rate of mortality (P = 0.04). ConclusionsPatient comorbidities, presence of HIT-related thromboembolism on admission and shorter anticoagulant therapy were found to be negative prognostic factors. Thrombocythemia on admission, patients age and gender did not influence the overall outcome.