Cardiol Clin. 2020 Nov;38(4):629-637. doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2020.07.009. Epub 2020 Sep 17.
The article discusses pharmacologic and interventional therapeutic options for patients with refractory angina. Refractory angina refers to long-lasting symptoms (≥3 months) due to established reversible ischemia in the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease, which cannot be controlled by escalating medical therapy with second-line and third-line pharmacologic agents, bypass grafting, or stenting. Due to an aging population, increased number of comorbidities, and advances in coronary artery disease treatment, incidence of refractory angina is growing. Although the number of therapeutic options is increasing, there is a lack of randomized clinical trials that could help create recommendations for this group of patients.