Predicting 30-day mortality of patients with pneumonia in an emergency department setting using machine-learning models

Link to article at PubMed

Clin Exp Emerg Med. 2020 Sep;7(3):197-205. doi: 10.15441/ceem.19.052. Epub 2020 Sep 30.


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to confirm the accuracy of a machine-learning-based model in predicting the 30-day mortality of patients with pneumonia and evaluating whether they were required to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).

METHODS: The study conducted a retrospective analysis of pneumonia patients at an emergency department (ED) in Seoul, Korea, from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017. Patients aged 18 years or older with a pneumonia registry designation on their electronic medical record were enrolled. We collected their demographic information, mental status, and laboratory findings. Three models were used: the pre-existing CURB-65 model, and the CURB-RF and Extensive CURB-RF models, which were machine-learning models that used a random forest algorithm. The primary outcomes were ICU admission from the ED or 30-day mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the models, and the areas under these curves were compared.

RESULTS: Out of the 1,974 pneumonia patients, 1,732 patients were eligible to be included in the study; from these, 473 patients died within 30 days or were initially admitted to the ICU from the ED. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves of CURB-65, CURB-RF, and extensive-CURB-RF were 0.615 (0.614-0.616), 0.701 (0.700-0.702), and 0.844 (0.843-0.845), respectively.

CONCLUSION: The proposed machine-learning models could predict the mortality of patients with pneumonia more accurately than the pre-existing CURB-65 model and can help decide whether the patient should be admitted to the ICU.

PMID:33028063 | DOI:10.15441/ceem.19.052

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