Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020 Sep 10;14(6):1841-1845. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.09.013. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To elucidate the clinical features of COVID-19 patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) under hospitalization and home isolation conditions.
METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted among 32 patients with COVID-19 and T1D, who sought treatment at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between May 01, 2020 and July 30, 2020. Patients data were extracted from electronic medical records.
RESULTS: Of the total of 32 COVID-19 patients with T1D, 21.9% required hospitalization, while 78.1% underwent home isolation. Among the study population, 9.4% (3/32) were reported to have hypertension, 21.9% (7/32) had chronic pulmonary disease (CPD), 18.8% (6/32) had thyroid disorders, and 18.8% (6/32) had the celiac disease. Of the 32 studied patients, 68.8% (22/32) of them were reported as normal, while 28.1% (9/32) had chronic kidney disease (CKD) II and 3.1% (1/32) had end-stage renal failure. The most common symptoms observed among the hospitalized patients were nausea and vomiting (71.4%; 5/7), followed by fever (57.1%; 4/7), cough (42.8%; 3/7), sore throat (42.8%; 3/7), abdominal pain (42.8%; 3/7) and dyspnea (42.%; 3/7). The most common reasons for hospitalization were diabetic ketoacidosis (71.4%; 5/7) followed by bacterial pneumonia (14.3%; 1/7), fever (14.3%; 1/7), sore throat (14.3%; 1/7), severe hyperglycemia (14.3%; 1/7) and COVID-19 pneumonia (14.3%; 1/7). Except the severity of COVID-19 (p = 0.0001), none of the demographic and clinical parameters indicated statistically significant differences between patients requiring hospitalization and home isolation.
CONCLUSION: Majority of the COVID-19 patients with T1D recovered with conservative treatment at home. Diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common reason for hospitalization.