Respir Care. 2020 Sep 22:respcare.08206. doi: 10.4187/respcare.08206. Online ahead of print.
Management of patients with a tracheostomy tube includes many components of care provided by clinicians from various health care disciplines. In recent years, clinicians worldwide have demonstrated a renewed interest in the management of patients with tracheostomy due to the recognition that more effective and efficient management of this patient population is necessary to decrease morbidity and mortality and to optimize the value of the procedure. Commensurate with the goal of enhancing the care of patients with tracheostomy, we conducted a systematic review to facilitate the development of recommendations relevant to the care of adult patients with tracheostomy in the acute care setting. From our systematic review, clinical practice guidelines were developed to address questions regarding the impact of tracheostomy bundles, tracheostomy teams, and protocol-directed care on time to decannulation, length of stay, tracheostomy-related cost, tracheostomy-related adverse events, and other tracheostomy-related outcomes in tracheostomized adult patients in the acute care setting. Using a modification of the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method, 3 recommendations were developed to assist clinicians with tracheostomy management of adult patients in the acute care setting: (1) evidence supports the use of tracheostomy bundles that have been evaluated and approved by a team of individuals experienced in tracheostomy management to decrease time to decannulation, tracheostomy-related adverse events, and other tracheostomy-related outcomes, namely, improved tolerance of oral diet; (2) evidence supports the addition of a multidisciplinary tracheostomy team to improve time to decannulation, length of stay, tracheostomy-related adverse events, and other tracheostomy-related outcomes, namely, increased speaking valve use; (3) evidence supports the use of a weaning/decannulation protocol to guide weaning and removal of the tracheostomy tube to improve time to decannulation.