Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2020 Sep 17. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3408. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabolic complication characterized by hyperglycemia, ketones in blood or urine, and acidosis.
OBJECTIVE: Assess the characteristics of patients hospitalized for DKA, identify triggers for DKA and evaluate the long-term effects of DKA on glycemic control, complications of diabetes, re-hospitalizations and mortality.
METHODS: Historical prospectively collected data of patients hospitalized to medical wards for DKA between 2011 and 2017. Data regarding comorbidities, mortality, triggers and re-hospitalizations for DKA were also collected.
RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 160 patients (mean age 38±18 years, 43% male). One fifth of the patients (34 patients, 21%) were newly diagnosed with diabetes, and DKA was their first presentation of the disease. Among the 126 patients with pre-existing diabetes, the common identified triggers for DKA were poor compliance to treatment (22%) and infectious diseases (18%). During over 7 years of follow-up, mortality rate was 9% (15 patients), and re-hospitalization for DKA rate was 31% (50 patients). Risk factors for re-hospitalization for DKA included young age (OR=1.02, 95% CI, 1.00-1.04), pre-existing diabetes compared to DKA as the first presentation (OR=5.4, 95% CI, 1.7-18), and poorer glycemic control before initial hospitalization (10.5±2.5% vs. 9.4±2.2%; OR=0.8, 95% CI (0.68-0.96)) and after discharge (10.3±2.4% vs. 9.0±1.9%; OR=0.73, 95% CI (0.61-0.87)). Laboratory tests during the initial hospitalization, smoking, alcohol, or comorbidities did not increase the risk for re-hospitalization for DKA.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk for readmission for DKA is higher for young patients with long duration of diabetes, poor compliance of insulin treatment and poorly controlled diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.