Cureus. 2020 Aug 11;12(8):e9653. doi: 10.7759/cureus.9653.
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive species of spore-forming bacteria. C. difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections in the United States, mainly caused by the use of recent antibiotics that leads to intestinal dysbiosis. Recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI) often occurs after the successful treatment of CDI. Approximately, 30% of patients experience a clinical recurrence of prior symptoms within eight weeks of antibiotic cessation. This present literature review covers the current pathophysiology of CDI, risk factors for infection, diagnostic methods, several treatment modalities, and the potential use of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) for patients with multiple recurrent CDIs. Recent studies have focused on FMT, with an efficacy rate of nearly 90% in multiple recurrent CDI settings. Despite its efficacy, it is not commonly used as first-line treatment. More studies are needed to establish this therapy as the first option in patients with rCDI.