J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Sep 5. doi: 10.1111/jgh.15247. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) remains unknown in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding, which is one of the most common causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. We investigated the efficacy of TXA for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding.
METHODS: We performed a nationwide observational study using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database and identified patients who were admitted for diverticular bleeding from 2010 to 2018. Patients who received TXA on the day of admission comprised the TXA group, and the remaining patients comprised the control group. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included severe bleeding, blood transfusion within 7 days of admission, length of stay, and hospitalization costs. Propensity score matching was performed to compare outcomes between the two groups.
RESULTS: Overall, 78,291 patients met our eligibility criteria and 30,526 matched pairs were created by one-to-one propensity score matching. After matching, there was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality between the two groups (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.30); however, TXA administration was associated with significantly lower proportions of severe bleeding events (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99), blood transfusions (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.92), shorter length of stay (difference, -0.23 days; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.44 days), and lower total hospitalization costs (difference, -233 US dollars; 95% CI, -153 to -314 US dollars).
CONCLUSIONS: Although TXA was not significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality, it may reduce severe bleeding, blood transfusions, length of stay, and hospitalization costs.