Mayo Clin Proc. 2020 Aug 20:S0025-6196(20)30159-2. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.02.011. Online ahead of print.
Bloodstream infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Molecular rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are transforming care for patients with bloodstream infection by providing the opportunity to dramatically shorten times to effective therapy and speeding de-escalation of overly broad empiric therapy. However, because of the novelty of these tests which provide information regarding microbial identification and whether specific antibiotic-resistance mutations were detected, many front-line providers still delay final decisions until complete phenotypic susceptibility results are available several days later. Thus the benefits of mRDTs have been largely limited to circumstances where antimicrobial stewardship programs closely monitor these tests and intervene as soon as the results are available. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published from 1980 to 2019 using the terms antibiotic, antifungal, bacteremia, bloodstream infection, candidemia, candidiasis, children, coagulase negative staphylococcus, consultation, contamination, costs, echocardiogram, endocarditis, enterobacteriaceae, enterococcus, Gram-negative, guidelines, IDSA, immunocompromised, infectious disease or ID, lumbar puncture, meningitis, mortality, MRSA, MSSA, neonatal, outcomes, pediatric, pneumococcal, polymicrobial, Pseudomonas, rapid diagnostic testing, resistance, risk factors, sepsis, Staphylococcus aureus, stewardship, streptococcus, and treatment. With the data from this search, we aim to provide guidance to front-line providers regarding the interpretation and immediate actions to be taken in response to the identification of common bloodstream pathogens by mRDTs. In addition to antimicrobial therapy, additional diagnostic or therapeutic interventions are recommended for particular organisms and clinical settings to either determine the extent of infection or control its source. Pediatric perspectives are offered for those bloodstream pathogens for which management differs from that in adults.