Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 22:ciaa456. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa456. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a core measure sepsis (SEP-1) bundle in 2015. One element was initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics within 3 hours of diagnosis. The policy has the potential to increase antibiotic use and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). We evaluated the impact of SEP-1 implementation on broad-spectrum antibiotic use and CDI occurrence rates.
METHODS: Monthly adult antibiotic data for 4 antibiotic categories (surgical prophylaxis, broad-spectrum for community-acquired infections, broad-spectrum for hospital-onset/multidrug-resistant [MDR] organisms, and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]) from 111 hospitals participating in the Clinical Data Base Resource Manager were evaluated in periods before (October 2014-September 2015) and after (October 2015-June 2017) policy implementation. Interrupted time series analyses, using negative binomial regression, evaluated changes in antibiotic category use and CDI rates.
RESULTS: At the hospital level, there was an immediate increase in the level of broad-spectrum agents for hospital-onset/MDR organisms (+2.3%, P = .0375) as well as a long-term increase in trend (+0.4% per month, P = .0273). There was also an immediate increase in level of overall antibiotic use (+1.4%, P = .0293). CDI rates unexpectedly decreased at the time of SEP-1 implementation. When analyses were limited to patients with sepsis, there was a significant level increase in use of all antibiotic categories at the time of SEP-1 implementation.
CONCLUSIONS: SEP-1 implementation was associated with immediate and long-term increases in broad-spectrum hospital-onset/MDR organism antibiotics. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should evaluate sepsis treatment for opportunities to de-escalate broad therapy as indicated.
PMID:32827032 | DOI:10.1093/cid/ciaa456