medRxiv. 2020 Aug 14:2020.08.11.20172676. doi: 10.1101/2020.08.11.20172676. Preprint.
Blood type purportedly influences susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but whether it affects severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. Therefore, we examined the association of blood type and rhesus with hospitalization and disease severity among 428 COVID-19 patients diagnosed at the University of Cincinnati health system. In the sample, 50.2% of participants had the blood type O, 38.7% had the blood type A, 17.5% had the blood type B, and 3.5% had the blood type AB. In analysis adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities, the blood types A (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.50), B (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.51, 1.69), AB (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.20, 2.41), and O (OR: 1.18, 95%: 0.74, 1.98) were not associated with hospitalization for COVID-19. Similarly, the blood types A (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.65), B (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.84), AB (OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.04, 2.44), and O (OR: 1.25, 95%: 0.73, 2.14) were not associated with admission to intensive care unit or death in COVID-19. In conclusion, blood type is not associated with hospitalization or disease severity in COVID-19; therefore, it may not be useful marker for identifying patients at risk for severe COVID-19.