Effect of high-flow nasal cannula versus conventional oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation for preventing reintubation: a Bayesian network meta-analysis and systematic review

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J Thorac Dis. 2020 Jul;12(7):3725-3736. doi: 10.21037/jtd-20-1050.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adequate respiratory support can improve clinical outcomes in patients who are ready for weaning from a ventilator. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of respiratory methods in adults undergoing planned extubation using a Bayesian network meta-analysis.

METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov for unpublished and ongoing trials up to November 2019 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English that compared conventional oxygen therapy (COT), a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for post-extubation respiratory support. Screening of citations, study selection, data extraction, and assessment of risk were performed independently by two authors. The primary outcome was the reintubation rate.

RESULTS: Twenty-two studies (4,218 patients) were included in our meta-analysis. Extubated patients supported with NIV had a significantly lower incidence of reintubation than those supported with COT [odds ratio (OR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42, 0.89]. However, there was no significant difference in the reintubation rate between the HFNC and NIV, and HFNC and COT groups (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.81; OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.33, 1.02, respectively). HFNC and NIV reduced the incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.93; OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.87, respectively) and post-extubation acute respiratory failure (ARF) (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.89; OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.63, respectively) compared with COT. There was no significant difference in a decreased incidence of HAP (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.56, 1.8) or post-extubation ARF (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.33, 2.1) between NIV and HFNC. There were also no significant differences in improvements in other clinical outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality and the length of stay (LOS) between NIV and HFNC.

CONCLUSIONS: NIV reduces the reintubation rate in adult patients undergoing planned extubation compared with COT and HFNC.

PMID:32802452 | PMC:PMC7399398 | DOI:10.21037/jtd-20-1050

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