ESC Heart Fail. 2020 Aug 13. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.12944. Online ahead of print.
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and is related with worse outcomes. Insulin treatment is associated with sodium and water retention, weight gain, and hypoglycaemia-all pathophysiological mechanisms related to HF decompensation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between insulin treatment and the risk of 1 year readmission for HF in patients discharged for acute HF.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 2895 consecutive patients discharged after an episode of acute HF in a single tertiary hospital. Multivariable Cox regression, adapted for competing events, was used to assess the association between insulin treatment and 1 year readmission for HF in patients discharged after acute HF. Participants' mean age was 73.4 ± 11.2 years, 50.8% were women, 44.7% had T2DM [including 527 (18.2%) on insulin therapy], and 52.7% had preserved ejection fraction. At 1 year follow-up, 518 (17.9%) patients had died and 693 (23.9%) were readmitted for HF. The crude risk of readmission for HF was higher in patients on insulin, with no differences in 1 year mortality. After multivariable adjustment, patients on insulin were at significantly higher risk of 1 year readmission for HF than patients with diabetes who were not on insulin (hazard ratio 1.28; 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.59, P = 0.022) and patients without diabetes (hazard ratio 1.26; 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.55, P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: Following acute HF, patients with T2DM on insulin therapy are at increased risk of readmission for HF. Further studies unravelling the mechanisms behind this association are warranted.