Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2020 Aug 12. doi: 10.1089/sur.2020.105. Online ahead of print.
Background: No previous studies have determined the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients treated with vancomycin + meropenem (VM) versus vancomycin + cefepime (VC). The purpose of this study was to fill this gap. Methods: A series of 99 patients admitted to an American College of Surgeons-verified level 1 trauma center over a two-year period who received VC or VM for >48 hours were reviewed retrospectively. Exclusion criteria were existing renal dysfunction or on renal replacement therapy. The primary outcome was AKI as defined by a rise in serum creatinine (SCr) to 1.5 times baseline. Multi-variable analysis was performed to control for factors associated with AKI (age, obesity, gender, length of stay [LOS], nephrotoxic agent(s), and baseline SCr), with significance defined as p < 0.05. Results: The study population was 50 ± 19 years old, 76% male, with a median LOS of 21 [range 15-39] days, and baseline SCr of 0.9 ± 0.2 mg/dL. Antibiotics, diabetes mellitus, and Injury Severity Score were independent predictors of AKI (odds ratio [OR] 4.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-12; OR 9.3; 95% CI 1-27; OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.023-1.985, respectively). The incidence of AKI was higher with VM than VC (10/26 [38%] versus 14/73 [19.1%]; p = 0.049). Conclusions: The renal toxicity of vancomycin is potentiated by meropenem relative to cefepime in trauma patients. We recommend caution when initiating vancomycin combination therapy, particularly with meropenem.