Intern Emerg Med. 2020 Aug 9. doi: 10.1007/s11739-020-02462-5. Online ahead of print.
Aim of our study was to analyze the association between serum sodium (Na) variability and acute kidney injury (AKI) development. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study on the inpatient population admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014 with inclusion of adult patients with ≥ 2 Na and ≥ 2 serum creatinine measurements. We included only patients with ≥ 2 Na measurements before AKI development. The outcome of interest was AKI. The exposures of interest were hyponatremia, hypernatremia and Na fluctuations before AKI development. Na variability was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CV). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were fitted to obtain hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the exposures of interest and AKI. Overall, 56,961 patients met our inclusion criteria. During 1541 person-years of follow-up AKI occurred in 1450 patients. In multivariable hazard models, patients with pre-existent dysnatremia and those who developed dysnatremia had a higher risk of AKI compared with patients with normonatremia. Logistic models suggested a higher risk for AKI in the 3rd (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.18, 1.70, p < 0.001) and 4th (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.24, 1.91, p < 0.001) highest quartiles of Na CV with a significant linear trend across quartiles (p trend < 0.001). This association was also independent from Na highest and lowest peak value. Dysnatremia is a common condition and is positive associated with AKI development. Furthermore, high Na variability might be considered an independent early indicator for kidney injury development.