Indian J Gastroenterol. 2020 Aug 7. doi: 10.1007/s12664-020-01040-z. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: There is scarce data from the Indian subcontinent on the outcomes following spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP).
AIM: To study the immediate (within 30 days) and short-term mortality (31-90 days) associated with SBP and to determine the predictors of the same.
METHODS: This prospective observational study was done among patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent paracentesis. Patient data included age, gender, co-morbidity, cirrhosis-related complications, model of end-stage liver disease (MELD), and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) scores. SBP was diagnosed based on ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear leukocyte count > 250/mm3 with or without ascitic fluid culture positivity.
RESULTS: Of the 870 patients with cirrhosis and ascites registered during the study period, 610 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Altogether, 122 patients with SBP were identified: 52 (42.6%) died, 40 (32.8%) survived without liver transplant, and 30 (24.6%) underwent liver transplantation within 3 months. Thirty-two patients (26.2%) were blood culture posi tive for bacteria and 7 (5.7%) demonstrable bacterial growth in ascitic fluid. Blood culture positivity was significantly higher in the group with immediate mortality (p < 0.0001) and was also significantly associated (p 0.005) with mortality at 3 months.
CONCLUSION: Nearly two-fifths (42.6%) of the study cohort died within 3 months of an episode of SBP. Four-fifths of these patients died within 30 days. Blood culture positivity was significantly associated with immediate and short-term mortality.