Review on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: its outbreak and current status

Link to article at PubMed

Int J Clin Pract. 2020 Aug 4:e13637. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.13637. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: In late December 2019 and on 1st January 2020, the coronavirus (COVID-19) infecting humans was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Later cases have also been confirmed worldwide. Coronaviruses are RNA viruses that are phenotypically and genotypically diverse. Globally, as of 6th April 2020, laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) amounted to 1,211,214, including 67,666 deaths.

AIM: In the current study, we performed a literature review on coronavirus outbreak to summarize details about the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and the management strategies for the disease control.

PATHOGENESIS: Coronaviruses are tremendously precise and mature only in differentiated respiratory epithelial cells, as seen in both organ cultures as well as human volunteers. This virus will cause the antiviral T-cell response to be erratic, owing to the T-cell apoptosis activation, triggering the immune system to collapse.

TRANSMISSION: The understanding of the transmission of COVID-19 risk is incomplete. The transmission mainly occurs through the respiratory droplets once an infected person sneezes, like the spread of flu and other respiratory infectious agents.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Presentations of COVID-19 includes fever, cough, shortness of breath, malaise and respiratory distress.

TREATMENT: There have been no approved vaccines available for COVID-19 until today. The Ministry of Science and Technology in the People's Republic of China declared three potential anti-viral medicines suitable for treating COVID-19. Those three medicines are, namely, favilavir, chloroquine phosphate, and remdesivir. Hydroxychloroquine combined with azithromycin enhances the reduction of the viral load in COVID-19 patients.

CONCLUSION: The corona virus transmits quicker than its two predecessors the MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, but has reduced casualty. The global effects of this latest pandemic are still unclear. Nevertheless, considering that so far no vaccine has been available; preventive approaches are the best way to fight against the virus.

PMID:32750190 | DOI:10.1111/ijcp.13637

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