Rev Med Chil. 2020 Mar;148(3):288-294. doi: 10.4067/S0034-98872020000300288.
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is one of the main reasons of hospitalization due to gastrointestinal causes. Reported mortality rates range from 5 to 12%.
AIM: To determine hospital mortality and associated risk factors in hospitalized patients with UGIB. To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with variceal versus non-variceal UGIB.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of medical records of 249 patients (62% males) discharged with the diagnosis of UGIB at a clinical hospital between 2015 to 2017. Demographic and clinical characteristics and adverse clinical outcomes (surgery, length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality) were recorded. A comparative analysis between patients with Variceal and Non-variceal UGIB was carried out.
RESULTS: Seventy two percent of UGIB were non-variceal (peptic ulcer in 44%). Two patients required surgery (both died). Median of length of hospital stay was seven days (interquartile range (IQR) 4-13). Overall hospital mortality was 13 and 4% in variceal and non-variceal UGIB, respectively (p = 0.024). The variables associated with mortality were: red blood cell transfusion (odds ratio (OR): 18.7, p < 0.01), elevated creatinine on admission (OR: 3.30, p = 0.03) and variceal bleeding (OR: 3.23, p = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Hospital mortality of UGIB remains high, especially in variceal UGIB. Elevated creatinine levels on admission, the need of transfusion of red blood cells and variceal etiology are risk factors for mortality.