Levetiracetam vs. Fosphenytoin for Second-Line Treatment of Status Epilepticus: Propensity Score Matching Analysis Using a Nationwide Inpatient Database

Link to article at PubMed

Front Neurol. 2020 Jul 2;11:615. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00615. eCollection 2020.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Status epilepticus is a major emergency condition. The choice of antiepileptic drugs for second-line treatment after benzodiazepine remains controversial, including levetiracetam vs. fosphenytoin. We compare the safety of intravenous levetiracetam and fosphenytoin as a second-line treatment in patients with status epilepticus using a nationwide database. Methods: An observational study conducted with the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database identified adult patients who had been admitted for status epilepticus and who had received intravenous diazepam on the day of admission from March 1, 2011 to March 31, 2018. Patients who received intravenous levetiracetam on the day of admission were defined as the levetiracetam group and those who received intravenous fosphenytoin on the day of admission were defined as the fosphenytoin group. Propensity score matching was performed to compare outcomes obtained for the levetiracetam and fosphenytoin groups. Results: The analysis examined data of 5,667 patients. Overall, 1,403 (25%) patients received levetiracetam; 4,264 (75%) received fosphenytoin. One-to-one propensity score matching created 1,363 matched pairs. No significant difference was found in in-hospital mortality (5.2 vs. 5.1%; odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.46). The proportion of vasopressor use on the day of admission was significantly lower for the levetiracetam group than for the fosphenytoin group (3.2 vs. 4.9%; odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.92). No significant difference was found in other secondary outcomes including total hospitalization cost. Conclusion: Levetiracetam was related to significantly reduced vasopressor use on the day of admission than that found for fosphenytoin, in adult status epilepticus.

PMID:32719650 | PMC:PMC7348044 | DOI:10.3389/fneur.2020.00615

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