J Infect Public Health. 2020 Jul 17:S1876-0341(20)30568-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.002. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak in late December 2019 has quickly emerged into pandemic in 2020. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and to investigate the potential risk factors for COVID-19 severity.
METHOD: 1663 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosed COVID-19 from Tongji Hospital between January 14, 2020, and February 28, 2020 were included in the present study. Demographic information, exposure history, medical history, comorbidities, signs and symptoms, chest computed tomography (CT) scanning, severity of COVID-19 and laboratory findings on admission were collected from electronic medical records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between potential risk factors with COVID-19 severity.
RESULTS: In the present study, the majority (79%) of 1663 COVID-19 patients were aged over 50 years old. A total of 2.8% were medical staff, and an exposure history of Huanan seafood market was document in 0.7%, and 7.4% were family infection. Fever (85.8%), cough (36.0%), fatigue (23.6%) and chest tightness (11.9%) were the most common symptoms in COVID-19 patients. As of February 28, 2020, of the 1663 patients included in this study, 26.0% were discharged, 10.2% were died, and 63.8% remained hospitalized. More than 1/3 of the patients had at least one comorbidity. Most (99.8%) patients had abnormal results Chest CT, and the most common manifestations of chest CT were local patchy shadowing (70.7%) and ground-glass opacity (44.8%). On admission, lymphocytopenia was present in 51.1% of the patients, mononucleosis in 26.6%, and erythrocytopenia in 61.3%. Most of the patients had increased levels of C-reactive protein (80.4%) and D-dimer (64.4%). Compared with non-severe patients, severe patients had more obvious abnormal laboratory results related to inflammation, coagulation disorders, liver and kidney damage (all P < 0.05). Older age (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.47-3.83), leukocytosis (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.47-3.83), and increased creatine kinase (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.47-3.83) on admission were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity.
CONCLUSION: Timely medical treatment and clear diagnosis after the onset might be beneficial to control the condition of COVID-19. Severe patients were more likely to be to be elder, and tended to have higher proportion of comorbidities and more prominent laboratory abnormalities. Older age, leukocytosis, and increased creatine kinase might help clinicians to identify severe patients with COVID-19.