Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Jul 24;87:106819. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106819. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: The complement alternative pathway is involved in the development of AVV. Several studies showed that AVV patients with low serum complement C3 (sC3) levels tend to have a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether low sC3 measured at AAV onset is a risk factor for survival prognosis in patients with AVV, and further identified other potential risk factors for predicting patient survival prognosis.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 52 newly onset AAV patients was performed. The clinical parameters of the AAV patients were collected. The laboratory parameters before immunosuppressive treatment were evaluated. According to the level of sC3, the patients were divided into low sC3 group (n = 19) and normal sC3 group (n = 33). Disease outcome measures included end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. The clinical parameters and survival rate between the two groups were compared. Spearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between sC3 and other laboratory parameters.
RESULTS: Significant differences were found regarding Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), sC3, sC4, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, procalcitonin (PCT), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between the two groups (p = 0.006, 0.000, 0.001, 0.049, 0.019, 0.000 and 0.045, respectively). The survival rate of the low sC3 group was significantly lower than that of the normal sC3 group (Log Rank Chi-square = 4.416, P = 0.036). Low sC3 was significantly associated with lower sC4 (r = 0.570, P = 0.000), lower serum albumin (r = 0.311, P = 0.025), lower eGFR (r = 0.289, P = 0.037), higher PCT (r = -0.566, P = 0.000), and higher lactate dehydrogenase (r = -0.323, P = 0.019).
CONCLUSION: This retrospective study demonstrates that AAV patients with low sC3 level at diagnosis tend to have lower baseline eGFR and poorer survival prognosis than those of the normal sC3 level. Furthermore, the high procalcitonin (PCT), low serum albumin and high lactate dehydrogenase in AVV patients may be predictors of poor prognosis.