Cureus. 2020 Jun 22;12(6):e8760. doi: 10.7759/cureus.8760.
Objective To evaluate characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting with mechanical prosthetic valve thrombosis in a tertiary cardiac center in Pakistan. Methods This was a prospective and interventional study conducted at Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology over a period of two years. The clinical characteristics of patients presenting with clinical suspicion of prosthetic valve thrombosis were recorded. They were, then, subjected to streptokinase, redo surgery and heparin based on their hemodynamic stability, thrombus burden and surgical risk. The patients were then followed for the outcomes of the study. Results Out of 576 patients with mechanical valve replacement during the study period, 70 patients had developed prosthetic valve thrombosis. Out of 70 patients, there were 41 female (58.50%) and 29 male (41.50%) participants. The mean age of the participants was 48.40±15.00 years. The overall incidence of mechanical prosthetic valve thrombosis was 12.15%. There were 30 patients (42.80%) with a suboptimal international normalized ratio (INR) and 28 patients (40.00%) were non-compliant to warfarin therapy. The overall incidence of adverse clinical outcome was 18.00%, while the overall mortality rate was 10.00%. The mortality was higher for patients who underwent redo surgery (16.60%) as compared to patients who had received fibrinolytic therapy (9.60%). Conclusion Poor compliance with warfarin and suboptimal INR are the important factors causing mechanical prosthetic valve. Because of lower mortality rate, fibrinolysis with streptokinase is a reasonable treatment option for mechanical prosthetic valve thrombosis.