Drugs. 2020 Jul 20. doi: 10.1007/s40265-020-01362-4. Online ahead of print.
Functional dyspepsia is a common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of gastroduodenal origin, diagnosed clinically in the presence of prototypical symptoms of epigastric pain and meal-related symptoms, and without structural explanation. The most recent diagnostic criteria provide for two functional dyspepsia subtypes, epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and post-prandial distress syndrome (PDS) based on the predominant symptom pattern. The evaluation of dyspepsia should keep laboratory, imaging, and invasive testing to a minimum, as extensive or repetitive investigations are of rather low diagnostic yield in the absence of localizing symptoms or alarm features. Factors with etiopathologic relationships to functional dyspepsia include micro-inflammation, GI infections, abnormalities of gastroduodenal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbances along the brain-gut axis, and psychological factors; all of these causative mechanisms have potential to partially explain symptoms in some functional dyspepsia patients, thus providing a rationale for the efficacy of a diversity of therapeutic approaches to functional dyspepsia. Management of dyspepsia symptoms relies upon both pharmacologic treatments and non-pharmacologic approaches, including psychological and complementary interventions. The evidence in support of established functional dyspepsia therapies is reviewed, and forms the basis for an effective functional dyspepsia treatment strategy emphasizing the patient's current symptom severity, pattern, and impact on the function and quality of life of the individual.