Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2020 Jun 2;33(3):350-356. doi: 10.1080/08998280.2020.1765663. eCollection 2020 Jul.
Patients suffering advanced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) account for a large portion of patients admitted to hospitals worldwide. Mortality and 30-day readmission rates for HFrEF are now a focus of value-based payment models, making management of this disease a priority for hospitals, physicians, and payers alike. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been the cornerstone of therapy for decades. However, with treatment, the prognosis for patients with advanced HFrEF remains poor. Fortunately, advances in medical therapy and mechanical support offer some patients improvement in both survival and quality of life. We review advances in short- and long-term mechanical support and explore changes to organ allocation for cardiac transplantation. In addition, we provide a guide to facilitate appropriate referral to an advanced heart failure team.