Doshi S and Wish JB. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020.
Readmissions in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD and kidney failure are common and are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic consequences. In 2013, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services implemented the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program in an attempt to reduce high hospitalization-associated costs. Up to 50% of all readmissions are deemed avoidable and present an opportunity for intervention. We describe factors that are specific to the patient, the index hospitalization, and underlying conditions that help identify the "high-risk" patient. Early follow-up care, developing volume management strategies, optimizing nutrition, obtaining palliative care consultations for seriously ill patients during hospitalization and conducting goals-of-care discussions with them, instituting systematic advance care planning during outpatient visits to avoid unwanted hospitalizations and intensive treatment at the end of life, and developing protocols for patients with incident or prevalent cardiovascular conditions may help prevent avoidable readmissions in patients with kidney disease.