Pharmacological and non-pharmacological efforts at prevention, mitigation, and treatment for COVID-19

Link to article at PubMed

Alvi MM, et al. J Drug Target 2020.

ABSTRACT

A global outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected millions of people over a short period of time. The communicability and increased mortality from the SARS-CoV-2 infection mandated the WHO to declare COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic. The virus outbreak has spread when there are no approved vaccines, treatments, or prophylactic therapies available. Researchers from all over the world have prioritized development of vaccines and antivirals. Several vaccine projects have seen successes in preclinical, phase I, and phase II clinical trials using recombinant DNA, mRNA, live attenuated virus, S-protein subunits, virus like particles, and viral vectors. Initial findings from antivirals such as remdesivir, favipiravir, danoprevir or lopinavir with ritonavir are presented. Immunomodulatory molecules such as sarilumab, tocilizumab, janus kinase inhibitors, and hyperimmune convalescent plasma have mixed outcomes from initial clinical findings; however, pending randomized controlled trials will assist national health institutions to make treatment recommendations for COVID-19. Where compassionate use of remdesivir has shown some benefits, therapies such as hydroxychloroquine have proven harmful due to their toxicities. This review discusses pharmacological interventions at play and evidence-based successes and limitations of non-pharmacological therapies such as social distancing, personal protective equipment, and ventilator support associated with the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

PMID:32643436 | DOI:10.1080/1061186X.2020.1793990

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