Figueiredo Neto JA, et al. Arq Bras Cardiol 2020.
Infection with the coronavirus known as COVID-19 has promoted growing interest on the part of cardiologists, emergency care specialists, intensive care specialists, and researchers, due to the study of myocardial involvement based on different clinical forms resulting from immunoinflammatory and neurohumoral demodulation.Myocardial involvement may be minimal and identifiable only by electrocardiographic changes, mainly increased cardiac troponins, or, on the other side of the spectrum, by forms of fulminant myocarditis and takotsubo syndrome.The description of probable acute myocarditis has been widely supported by the observation of increased troponin in association with dysfunction. Classical definition of myocarditis, supported by endomyocardial biopsy of inflammatory infiltrate, is rare; it has been observed in only one case report to date, and the virus has not been identified inside cardiomyocytes.Thus, the phenomenon that has been documented is acute myocardial injury, making it necessary to rule our obstructive coronary disease based on increased markers of myocardial necrosis, whether or not they are associated with ventricular dysfunction, likely associated with cytokine storms and other factors that may synergistically promote myocardial injury, such as sympathetic hyperactivation, hypoxemia, arterial hypotension, and microvascular thrombotic phenomena.Systemic inflammatory and myocardial phenomena following viral infection have been well documented, and they may progress to cardiac remodeling and myocardial dysfunction. Cardiac monitoring of these patients is, therefore, important in order to monitor the development of the phenotype of dilated myocardiopathy.This review presents the main etiological and physiopathological findings, a description of the taxonomy of these types of cardiac involvement, and their correlation with the main clinical forms of the myocardial component present in patients in the acute phase of COVID-19.