Yang X, et al. J Clin Pharmacol 2020.
Hepatotoxicity with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux is a relatively common adverse reaction. This study assessed the effects of LMWH and fondaparinux on liver function in patients with pulmonary embolism based on a retrospective cohort. As a result, a total of 463 patients with pulmonary embolism and treated with LMWH (enoxaparin sodium or nadroparin calcium) or fondaparinux sodium were included. Liver dysfunction was identified in 79 patients (17.1%), of whom 97.5% had grade 1 drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and 2.5% had grade 2 DILI. The results showed that liver dysfunction usually occurred in the first week after anticoagulant administration, and the liver tests of all patients with liver dysfunction gradually recovered or alleviated at discharge. The multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that a longer treatment course and hepatitis B surface antigen-positive (HBsAg+) were risk factors for liver dysfunction (P < .05). Moreover, nadroparin calcium had the highest risk of liver dysfunction, approximately 2.2 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1740-4.224; P = .015) that of enoxaparin sodium. In conclusion, nearly one-fifth and 10% of patients prescribed with LMWH or fondaparinux, respectively, for pulmonary embolism had liver dysfunction, mainly with mild liver injury and characterized by self-limited elevated serum transaminase levels. Hence, during the 3 anticoagulant applications, we should pay more attention to the monitoring of liver function in the first week and transit to oral anticoagulants if possible, especially for patients who are HBsAg+ or suffering from other liver diseases.