Song Y, et al. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020 - Review.
Currently, there is no approved therapy for COVID-19. The World Health Organization therefore endorse supportive care only. However, frontline clinicians and researchers have been experimenting with several virus-based and host-based therapeutics since the outbreak in China. China's National Health Commission has issued the first COVID-19 Treatment Guideline with therapy suggestions (7th edition attached) which inspired following clinical studies worldwide. Major therapeutics are evaluated in this review. Key evidence from in vitro researches, animal models and clinical researches in emerging coronaviruses are examined. Antiviral therapies remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and umifenovir, if considered, could be initiated before the peak of viral replication for optimal outcomes. Ribavirin may be beneficial as an add-on therapy and is ineffective as a monotherapy. Corticosteroids use should be limited to indicating comorbidities. IVIG is not recommended due to lack of data in COVID-19. Xuebijing may benefit patients with complications of bacterial pneumonia or sepsis. The efficacy of interferon is unclear due to conflicting outcomes in coronavirus studies. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have shown in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2, and the studies on clinical efficacy and whether the benefits outweigh the risk of dysrhythmias remain inconclusive. For patients who developed cytokine release syndrome, interleukin-6 inhibitors may be beneficial.