Antithrombotic therapy in coronary artery disease patients with atrial fibrillation

Link to article at PubMed

Wei L, et al. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently coexist in clinical practice, making it challenging for the treating physician to choose anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate antithrombotic strategies and assess related adverse outcomes in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with AF when the CHA2DS2-VASc score was ≥2.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective study and collected data from a computer-based patient record management system in Zhengzhou University People's Hospital in China. In total, 2978 patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of CAD and concomitant AF who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016, and data from 2050 patients were finally analysed. The χ2 test was used to compare the incidences of clinical endpoints between the SCAD+AF group and the ACS + AF group. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictive factors of adverse outcomes in both groups.

RESULTS: Oral anticoagulant (OAC) monotherapy was the most common antithrombotic therapy in SCAD+AF patients (49.55%), while double antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was the most common treatment in ACS + AF patients (54.19%) at discharge. OAC monotherapy significantly increased and the use of single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) decreased during follow-up (34 ± 13 months) when compared to their use at discharge in the SCAD+AF group (all p < 0.001). In the ACS + AF group, the proportion of patients using DAPT decreased notably, while the proportions of patients using SAPT and dual therapy (DT) combining OAC with SAPT increased significantly during follow-up (all p < 0.001) compared to the proportions at discharge. According to multivariable Cox regression analysis, age, hypertension and prior stroke were independent risk factors for ischaemic stroke in the SCAD+AF group and ACS + AF group (all p < 0.05). OAC was an independent protective factor for ischaemic stroke in both groups (all p < 0.05). Previous bleeding independently increased the risk of haemorrhage in both groups (all p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the proportion of anticoagulant-antiplatelet combined therapy was low in ACS + AF patients with high stroke risk. In clinical practice, the awareness of anticoagulation needs to be strengthened regarding patients with CAD and AF.

PMID:32631244 | DOI:10.1186/s12872-020-01609-8

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