Nuzzo D and Picone P. Neurosci Res 2020 - Review.
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large positive stranded enveloped RNA viruses that generally cause enteric and respiratory diseases in humans and in animals. Most human CoVs have recently attracted global attention to their lethal potential and great infectious capacity. A highly pathogenic CoV, called COVID-19 or SARS-CoV2, dramatically emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. This new CoV has caused severe pneumonia in China and rapidly spreads around the world, the COVID-19 pandemic. Growing evidence pieces show that viruses, such as CoVs, can enter the central nervous system from different pathways and inducing neurotoxicity. Therefore, it is urgent to make clear whether SARS-CoV-2 has access to the central nervous system and can cause direct neuronal effects. Moreover, a brain-lung-brain axis is been proposed from the scientific community where severe neurological dysfunction and injury are associated with lung injury, and vice versa. In this axis, virus-induced inflammation and oxidative stress could be the common mechanisms responsible for CoV neurological symptoms. Therefore, is important to make clear whether SARS-CoV-2 lung damage can cause indirect or indirect neuronal effects.