Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Aug;41(4):579-591. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1710537. Epub 2020 Jul 6.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is growing appreciation of the burden of noninfluenza viral pathogens in CAP. Due to multiple factors including pneumococcal vaccination programs, declining rates of cigarette smoking, an aging population, and increasingly sensitive diagnostic tests, respiratory viruses are now the most common pathogens detected in CAP, outpacing Streptococcus pneumoniae. Noninfluenza respiratory pathogens are widely accepted as causal pathogens in CAP including in immunocompetent patients. This review provides an overview of five noninfluenza respiratory viral pathogens commonly implicated in CAP pathogenesis: rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, and human adenoviruses. Nucleic acid amplification testing platforms and their impact on antimicrobial stewardship efforts are also considered.