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Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which most commonly results from poisoning (for example carbon monoxide or drug overdose), vascular injury or insult, or cardiac arrest. Many patients who suffer anoxic brain injury expire without regaining full consciousness and many patients have significantly poor neurologic outcomes. However, some advances are beginning to demonstrate the preservation of brain tissue, and there is a focus on identifying patients with the prospect of improving neurologic morbidity and mortality. There has been published data to indicate that there are predictors for poor outcome. However, evidence of factors suggestive of good prognosis or outcome has lagged. This activity will review the literature and practices concerning anoxic encephalopathy and brain injury.