DVT incidence and risk factors in critically ill patients with COVID-19

Link to article at PubMed

Chen S, et al. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2020.

ABSTRACT

Few data are available on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in critically ill COVID-19 with thrombosis prophylaxis. This study retrospectively included 88 patients in the ICU with critically ill COVID-19 at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, China. All patients underwent compression ultrasonography for identifying DVT. Firth logistic regression was used to examine the association of DVT with sex, age, hypoalbuminemia, D-dimer, and SOFA score. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age and SOFA score of 88 patients were 63 (55-71) years old and 5 (4-6), respectively. Despite all patients receiving guideline-recommended low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 46% (95% CI 35-56%). Proximal DVT was recognized in 9% (95% CI 3-15%) of the patients, while 46% (95% CI 35-56%) of patients had distal DVT. All of the proximal DVT combined with distal DVT. Risk factors of DVT extension occurred in all distal DVT patients. As Padua score ≥ 4 or IMPROVE score ≥ 2, 53% and 46% of patients had DVT, respectively. Mortality was higher in patients with acute DVT (30%) compared with non-DVT (17%), but did not reach statistical significance. Hypoalbuminemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.17; 95% CI 0.06-0.05, P = 0.001), higher SOFA score (OR per IQR, 2.07; 95% CI 1.38-3.39, P = 0.001), and elevated D-dimer (OR per IQR, 1.04; 95% CI 1.03-1.84, P = 0.029) were significant DVT risk factors in multivariable analyses. High incidence of DVT was identified in patients with critically ill COVID-19, despite the use of guideline-recommended pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The presence of hypoalbuminemia, higher SOFA score, and elevated D-dimer were significantly independent risk factors of DVT. More effective VTE prevention and management strategies may need to be addressed.

PMID:32607652 | DOI:10.1007/s11239-020-02181-w

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