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Emerging of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised interests in the field of biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses; including interactions between host immune reactions specific, and viral factors. Deep knowledge about the interaction between coronaviruses and the host factors could be useful to provide a better support for the disease sufferers and be advantageous for managing and treatment of the lung infection caused by the virus. At this study, we reviewed the updated information on the pathogenesis of the COVID-19 and the immune responses toward it, with a special focus on structure, genetics, and viral accessory proteins, viral replication, viral receptors, the human immune reactions, cytopathic effects, and host-related factors.